Intelligent Enterprise Systems


Building on advanced AI-based technologies, today's enterprise systems become increasingly intelligent generating significant interest within the scientific and business community. Furthermore, many machines and other devices will receive an IP address in the (near) future and connect to the web in the 'internet of things' offering even more accessible data. Finally, we see an increasing amount of sensors capturing neuro-physiological data from humans at work and private life. Certainly, this ubiquitous computerization of business and society has tremendously progressed the ability to gather, transform and analyze data.

However, human cognitive abilities to interpret this avalanche of data, that is, to extract meaning from data, is limited, particularly in real-time environments where speed is fundamental. Thus, we need to comprehend how to support human abilities to consume information in complex, real-time technological environments. To achieve this aim, we are investigating and designing next-generation enterprise systems with a specific focus on (1) Physio-Adaptive Systems and (2) Interactive Business Intelligence & Analytics Systems.

Research Topics

In the research department "Intelligent Enterprise Systems" we are currently investigating the following specific research topics. 

Physio-Adaptive Systems
  • Physiological Computing and Physiolytics
  • Flow Measurement with Physiological Data
  • Flow-Adaptive Notification Systems
Interactive Business Intelligence & Analytics Systems
  • Interactive Machine Learning Systems
  • Explainable Artificial Intelligence
  • Self-Service Analytics
  • Interactive and Analytical Dashboards

The publications listed below provide further insights on recent results of our research activities.



Heads of Area


Prof. Dr. Alexander Mädche Prof. Dr. Alexander Mädche
Phone: +49 721 608-41580
alexander maedche∂kit edu


Mario Nadj Dr. Mario Nadj
Phone: +49 721 608-41584


Merlin Knäble
+49 721 608-41586
Nico Loewe
+49 721 608-41583
Sven Michalczyk
+49 721 608-41583
Miguel Martinez
+49 721 608-41583
Jonathan Schwarzenböck
+49 721 608-41583

Selected Publication

Designing a Self-service Analytics System for Supply Base Optimization.
Michalczyk, S.; Nadj, M.; Beier, H.; Mädche, A.
2021. CAiSE ’21- 33rd International Conference on Advanced Information Systems Engineering, MELBOURNE, 28 JUNE 2021 - 2 JULY 2021, 154–161. doi:10.1007/978-3-030-79108-7_18
An Interactive Machine Learning System for Image Advertisements.
Foerste, M.; Nadj, M.; Knaeble, M.; Maedche, A.; Gehrmann, L.; Stahl, F.
2021. Mensch und Computer 2021 (MuC ’21), Ingolstadt, 5.-8.9.2021, 574–577, Association for Computing Machinery (ACM). doi:10.1145/3473856.3474027
Demystifying Job Roles in Data Science: A Text Mining Approach.
Michalczyk, S.; Nadj, M.; Mädche, A.; Gröger, C.
2021. ECIS 2021 Proceedings - European Conference on Information Systems. Human Values Crisis in a Digitizing World, Paper Number: 1622, Association for Information Systems (AIS)
The effect of interactive analytical dashboard features on situation awareness and task performance.
Nadj, M.; Maedche, A.; Schieder, C.
2020. Decision support systems, 135, Art.Nr.: 113322. doi:10.1016/j.dss.2020.113322
Physio-Adaptive Systems - A State-of-the-Art Review and Future Research Directions.
Loewe, N.; Nadj, M.
2020. ECIS 2020 Proceedings - Twenty-Eighth European Conference on Information Systems, Marrakesh, Marokko, June 15 - 17, 2020, 19 S
Oracle or Teacher? A Systematic Overview of Research on Interactive Labeling for Machine Learning.
Knaeble, M.; Nadj, M.; Maedche, A.
2020. 15. Internationale Tagung Wirtschaftsinformatik (WI 2020), Potsdam, 9 - 11 März 2020, 2–16, GITO Verlag. doi:10.30844/wi_2020_a1-knaeble
DASC-PM v1.0 : ein Vorgehensmodell für Data-Science-Projekte.
Schulz, M.; Neuhaus, U.; Kaufmann, J.; Badura, D.; Kerzel, U.; Welter, F.; Prothmann, M.; Kühnel, S.; Passlick, J.; Rissler, R.; Badewitz, W.; Dann, D.; Gröschel, A.; Kloker, S.; Alekozai, E. M.; Felderer, M.; Lanquillon, C.; Brauner, D.; Gölzer, P.; Binder, H.; Rhode, H.; Gehrke, N.
2020. Nordakademie, Hochschule der Wirtschaft
To Be or Not to Be in Flow at Work: Physiological Classification of Flow using Machine Learning.
Rissler, R.; Nadj, M.; Li, M. X.; Loewe, N.; Knierim, M. T.; Maedche, A.
2020. IEEE transactions on affective computing. doi:10.1109/TAFFC.2020.3045269
Flow in knowledge work groups - Autonomy as a driver or digitally mediated communication as a limiting factor?.
Knierim, M. T.; Nadj, M.; Li, M. X.; Weinhardt, C.
2020. 40th International Conference on Information Systems (ICIS 2019), München, 15.-18. Dezember 2019, AIS eLibrary (AISeL)
A State-of-the-Art Overview and Future Research Avenues of Self-Service Business Intelligence and Analytics.
Michalczyk, S.; Nadj, M.; Azarfar, D.; Mädche, A.; Gröger, C.
2020. Proceedings of the 28th European Conference on Information Systems (ECIS), An Online AIS Conference (Marrakesh, Marokko), June 15-17, 2020, Art.Nr. 46, AIS eLibrary (AISeL)
Power to the Oracle? Design Principles for Interactive Labeling Systems in Machine Learning.
Nadj, M.; Knaeble, M.; Li, M. X.; Maedche, A.
2020. Künstliche Intelligenz, 1–12. doi:10.1007/s13218-020-00634-1
Flow in Knowledge Work Groups – Autonomy as a Driver or Digitally Mediated Communication as a Limiting Factor?.
Knierim, M. T.; Nadj, M.; Li, M. X.; Weinhardt, C.
2019. ICIS 2019, Munich, Germany, December 15-18, 2019, 1–17, AIS eLibrary (AISeL)
Flow and optimal difficulty in the portable EEG: On the potentiality of using personalized frequency ranges for state detection.
Knierim, M. T.; Nadj, M.; Weinhardt, C.
2019. CHIRA 2018 : proceedings of the 3rd International Conference on Computer-Human Interaction Research and Applications, Wien, A, September 20-21, 2019. Ed.: H.P. Silva, 183–190, SciTePress
Towards an Integrative Theoretical Framework of Interactive Machine Learning Systems.
Meza Martínez, M. A.; Nadj, M.; Maedche, A.
2019. ECIS 2019 proceedings . 27th European Conference on Information Systems (ECIS), Stockholm & Uppsala, Sweden, June 8-14, 2019. Research Papers, Paper: 172, AIS eLibrary (AISeL)
Exploring Flow Psychophysiology in Knowledge Work.
Knierim, M. T.; Rissler, R.; Hariharan, A.; Nadj, M.; Weinhardt, C.
2018. Information systems and neuroscience : NeuroIS Retreat 2018, [Wien, 19.-21.06.2018]. Ed.: Fred D. Davis, 239–249, Springer. doi:10.1007/978-3-030-01087-4_29
BrownieR - The R-Package for Neuro Information Systems Research.
Michalczyk, S.; Jung, D.; Nadj, M.; Knierim, M.; Rißler, R.
2018. Information systems and neuroscience : NeuroIS Retreat 2018, [Wien, 19.-21.06.2018]. Ed.: Fred D. Davis, 101–109, Springer. doi:10.1007/978-3-030-01087-4_12
Flow Neurophysiology in Knowledge Work: Electroencephalographic Observations from Two Cognitive Tasks.
Knierim, M. T.; Nadj, M.; Hariharan, A.; Weinhardt, C.
2018. Proceedings of the 5th International Conference on Physiological Computing Systems (PhyCS 2018), Seville, E, September 19-21, 2018. Ed.: J.M. Belda Lois, 42–53, SciTePress
Designing Uncertainty-Aware Dashboards for Software Development Projects.
Knaeble, M.; Nadj, M.; Maedche, A.
2018. 13th International Conference on Design Science Research in Information Systems and Technology (DESRIST), Chennai, IND, June 3-6, 2018, 1–15
Got Flow? Using Machine Learning on Physiological Data to Classify Flow.
Rissler, R.; Nadj, M.; Li, M. X.; Knierim, M. T.; Maedche, A.
2018. Proceedings of the Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems (CHI), Montréal, Canada, 21st - 26th April 2018, Art.Nr. LBW612, Association for Computing Machinery (ACM). doi:10.1145/3170427.3188480
Flow-Erfassung am Arbeitsplatz: Aktueller Stand der Forschung und innovative Anwendungsszenarien.
Rissler, R.; Nadj, M.; Maedche, A.; Koppenhagen, N.
2017. Wirtschaftsinformatik & Management, 9 (6), 12–21. doi:10.1007/s35764-017-0116-0
The psychophysiology of flow: A systematic review of peripheral nervous system features.
Knierim, M. T.; Rissler, R.; Dorner, V.; Maedche, A.; Weinhardt, C.
2017. Information Systems and Neuroscience - Gmunden Retreat on NeuroIS 2017. Ed.: F. D. Davis, 109–120, Springer. doi:10.1007/978-3-319-67431-5_13
The impact of IT-mediated interruptions on flow and task performance.
Rissler, R.
2017. Doctoral Consortium Proceedings of the 25th European Conference on Information Systems (ECIS), Guimarães, Portugal, 5-10 June 2017
Towards an integrative theoretical framework of IT-mediated interruptions.
Rissler, R.; Nadj, M.; Adam, M.; Mädche, A.
2017. Proceedings of the 25th European Conference on Information Systems (ECIS), Guimarães, Portugal, 5-10 June 2017, 1950–1967, AIS eLibrary (AISeL)
Towards a Taxonomy of Real-Time Business Intelligence Systems.
Nadj, M.; Schieder, C.
2017. 25th European Conference on Information Systems (ECIS 2017), Guimarães, P, June 5-10, 2017. Proceedings, Tap Portugal
Flow in Information Systems Research: Review, Integrative Theoretical Framework, and Future Directions.
Rissler, R.; Nadj, M.; Adam, M. T. P.
2017. 13th International Conference on Wirtschaftsinformatik, Wirtschaftsinformatik 2017 (WI-2017), St. Gallen, 12-15 February 2017, 1051–1065
Process Intelligence for the Digital Age – Process Visibility Meets Process Mining.
Volmering, T.; Nadj, M.; Trump, R.; Maedche, A.
2016. Proceedings of the 14th International Conference, BPM 2016, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, September 18-22, 2016, 1–13, Springer
A Situation Awareness Driven Design for Predictive Maintenance Systems: The Case of Oil and Gas Pipeline Operations.
Nadj, M.; Jegadeesan, H.; Maedche, A.; Hoffmann, D.; Erdmann, P.
2016. Proceedings of the 24th European Conference on Information Systems, Istanbul, Turkey, June 12-15, 2016, 1–10
Quo Vadis Real-Time Business Intelligence? A Descriptive Literature Review and Future Directions.
Nadj, M.; Schieder, C.
2016. Proceedings of the 24th European Conference on Information Systems, Istanbul, Turkey, June 12-15, 2016, 1–21
Real-Time Business Intelligence: Eine systematische Identifikation aktueller Forschungsbedarfe.
Blaser, F.; Nadj, M.; Schieder, C.
2016. Multikonferenz Wirtschaftsinformatik (MKWI) 2016: Research-in-Progress- und Poster-Beiträge, Technische Universität Ilmenau, 09.-11. März 2016. Hrsg.: V. Nissen, 1367–1378, Universitätsverlag Ilmenau
Designing a supply network artifact for data, process, and people integration.
Koppenhagen, N.; Müller, B.; Mädche, A.; Li, Y.; Hiller, S.
2016. Information systems and e-business management, 14 (3), 613–636. doi:10.1007/s10257-015-0296-1
The Smart Mobile Application Framework (SMAF) - Exploratory Evaluation in the Smart City Contex.
Nadj, M.; Haeußler, F.; Wenzel, S.; Maedche, A.
2016. Multikonferenz Wirtschaftsinformatik (MKWI) 2016, Technische Universität Ilmenau, 09.-11. März 2016, Band 3. Hrsg.: V. Nissen, 1367–1378, Universitätsverlag Ilmenau
The Effect of Recommender Systems on Users’ Situation Awareness and Actions.
Kretzer, M.; Nadj, M.; Mädche, A.
2015. ICIS 2015 Proceedings : 36th International Conference on Information Systems: Exploring the Information Frontier, Fort Worth, United States, December 13-16, 2015, 1–12, Association for Information Systems (AIS)
Towards a Situation-Awareness-Driven Design of Operational Business Intelligence & Analytics Systems.
Nadj, M.; Morana, S.; Mädche, A.
2015. At the Vanguard of Design Science: First Impressions and Early Findings from Ongoing Research. 10th International Conference on Design Science Research in Information Systems and Technology (DESRIST), Dublin, Ireland, 20-22 May 2015. Ed.: B. Donnellan, 33–40, University College
Design Principles for Supply Network Systems. PhD dissertation.
Koppenhagen, N.
2013. Universitätsbibliothek Mannheim
Design Science Research in Action - Anatomy of Success Critical Activities for Rigor and Relevance.
Koppenhagen, N.; Gaß, O.; Müller, B.
2012. 20th European Conference on Information Systems (ECIS 2012), Barcelona, Spain, June 10-13, 2012
How Do Procurement Networks Become Social? Design Principles Evaluation in a Heterogeneous Environment of Structured and Unstructured Interactions.
Koppenhagen, N.; Katz, N.; Mädche, A.; Müller, B.
2012. International Conference on Information Systems (ICIS), Shanghai, China, 4-7 December 2011. Vol. 5, 3635–3653, Curran Associates, Inc
Anatomy of knowledge bases used in design science research : A literature review.
Gaß, O.; Koppenhagen, N.; Biegel, H.; Maedche, A.; Müller, B.
2012. Design Science Research in Information Systems. Advances in Theory and Practice : 7th International Conference (DESRIST), Las Vegas, USA, May 14-15, 2012. Ed.: K. Peffers, 328–344, Springer Verlag. doi:10.1007/978-3-642-29863-9_24
Towards Collaborative Procurement Network Enterprise Systems - A Design Science Research Project.
Koppenhagen, N.; Mädche, A.
2010. Pre-ICIS, Workshop on Enterprise Systems, Saint Louis, USA, 11.12.2010
Das Schließen des Kreislaufs im Einkauf mit mySAP SRM.
Koppenhagen, N.; Thome-Fix, V.
2007. Elektronische Beschaffung : Stand und Entwicklungstendenzen. Hrsg.: W. Brenner, 161–189, Springer Verlag. doi:10.1007/978-3-540-34018-8_8